Changes in Family, Genera, and Species Names
The publication of Jepson II in 2012 brought numerous nomenclatural changes, largely derived from molecular phylogenetic analyses and the goal of making all of our taxa monophyletic. These studies have necessitated either the splitting or the lumping of several families and genera. Many of the generic nomenclature changes (for example, Acmispon and Hosackia, segregated from Lotus of the Fabaceae) were actually done some time in the past, and constitute resurrected taxa. The "old-timer" taxonomists were often right!
A few taxonomic changes in our Checklist (e.g., the transfers of all Chamaesyce taxa to Euphorbia) reference recent revisions to the Jepson eFlora that were made subsequent to Jepson II. Others (e.g., the splitting of Cryptantha into five genera) arise from recent research articles not yet incorporated into the Jepson eFlora. Still others reflect treatments in FNA (1993+). Although we expect even more nomenclatural changes in the future, plant names have begun to stabilize. However, these changes require all of us to re-learn many scientific names, even some of common, well-known taxa. The following is a summary of the major nomenclatural changes in our fifth edition, organized by group and family.
Pteridaceae. All of our taxa of Cheilanthes have been transferred to the genus Myriopteris, as based on the phylogenetic studies of Grusz and Windham (2013).
Cupressaceae. Our two Cupressus species are now treated in the genus Hesperocyparis.
Acanthaceae. Avicennia has been transferred from the Verbenaceae to this family.
Aceraceae. We now treat the genus Acer as part of the Sapindaceae.
Amaranthaceae. This family is now split from the Chenopodiaceae, as was traditionally done.
Anacardiaceae. We are recognizing Rhus aromatica var. simplicifolia and var. aromatica, these not recognized in Jepson II.
Apiaceae. Two species of Spermolepis found in San Diego County have been recently described (Nesom 2012).
Apocynaceae. Taxa of the genera Cynanchum and Sarcostemma have been transferred to the genus Funastrum.
Araliaceae. The genus Hydrocotyle has been transferred from the Apiaceae to the Araliaceae.
Asteraceae. Chrysanthemum carinatum has been changed to Ismelia carinata. Chrysanthemum coronarium and C. segetum have been transferred to the genus Glebionis. All of our Chrysothamnus species have been transferred to the genus Ericameria. We choose to recognize varieties of Corethrogyne filaginifolia despite the fact that they are no longer recognized in Jepson II. Species of the genus Conyza have been transferred to the genera Erigeron or Laennecia. Our species of Coreopsis (except for C. tinctoria) have been transferred to the genus Leptosyne. Dyssodia tenuiloba is now Thymophylla t. Our species of Filago have been transferred to the genus Logfia. Our Machaeranthera taxa have been transferred to the genera Dieteria or Xanthisma. Matricaria matricarioides is now M. discoidea. Picris echioides is now Helminthotheca echioides.
Boraginaceae. This family has been expanded significantly and is now inclusive of the former families Boraginaceae s.s., Ehretiaceae, Heliotropaceae, Hydrophyllaceae, and Lennoaceae. However, this lumping is controversial and may be reversed in the future. The genus Cryptantha has been split into five genera: Cryptantha s.s., Eremocarya, Greeneocharis, Johnstonella, and Oreocarya (see Hasenstab-Lehman and Simpson 2012). Based on recent evidence (Simpson et al., 2014), Eremocarya is treated as two species (E. lepida and E. micrantha), formerly treated as varieties of Cryptantha micrantha. A possible new variety of Cryptantha pterocarya and cryptic forms of Cryptantha intermedia await description. A new species of Pectocarya, P. anisocarpa (not in Jepson II or yet in the Jepson eFlora) has been described (Guilliams et al. 2013) and is included here. Turricula parryi is now Eriodictyon parryi.
Brassicaceae. Arabis glabra has been transferred to the genus Turritis. Guillenia lasiophylla is now Caulanthus lasiophyllus. Hutchinsia procumbens is now Hornungia procumbens. Our species of Cardaria and Coronopus have been transferred to the genus Lepidium. We choose to recognize Lepidium virginicum var. robinsonii, a taxon not accepted by Jepson II. Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum is now Nasturtium officinale. Sibara virginica is now Planodes virginicum.
Cannabaceae. This family in our County now includes both Cannabis and Celtis, the latter formerly classified in the Celtidaceae or Ulmaceae.
Caryophyllaceae. The native Silene multinervia has been shown to be clearly distinct from the non-native S. coniflora (Rautenberg et al. 2012).
Chenopodiaceae. This family is now split from the Amaranthaceae. Within the Chenopodiaceae, Atriplex californica is now Extriplex californica (Zacharias and Baldwin 2010), a change made in the updated Jepson eFlora. Sarcocornia pacifica is back to Salicornia pacifica.
Cistaceae. Our taxa of Helianthemum have been transferred to the genus Crocanthemum (Sorrie 2011), a change made in the updated Jepson eFlora.
Cleomaceae. Our taxa of the Capparaceae have been transferred to this family. Within the Cleomaceae our Isomeris taxa have been transferred to the genus Peritoma. Cleome hassleriana is now Tarenaya hassleriana.
Euphorbiaceae. All taxa of Chamaesyce are now treated in the genus Euphorbia, a change to be recognized in the updated Jepson eFlora.
Fabaceae. Acacia farnesiana is now Vachellia farnesiana. Acacia greggii is now Senegalia greggii. Caesalpinia virgata is now Hoffmannseggia microphylla. Cercidium floridum is now Parkinsonia florida. The genus Lotus has been split into three genera: Acmispon, with gland-like stipules, Hosackia, with leaf-like stipules, and non-native species of Lotus, with gland-like stipules but often with the lower leaflets stipular in position. Most of these generic transfers resulted in retention of specific and infraspecific epithets, but the few that did not are worth mentioning here (authors of some indicated to avoid confusion). The former Lotus hamatus is now Acmispon micranthus (Torr. & A. Gray) Brouillet; Lotus humistratus is now Acmispon brachycarpus; Lotus micranthus Benth. is now Acmispon parviflorus [not to be confused with A. micranthus (Torr. & A. Gray) Brouillet, above!]; Lotus nuttallianus is now Acmispon prostratus; Lotus purshianus var. p. is now Acmispon americanus var. a.; Lotus salsuginosus var. brevivexillus and var. salsuginosus are now Acmispon maritimus var. brevivexillus and var. maritimus; and Lotus scoparius var. brevialatus and var. scoparius are now Acmispon glaber vars. brevialatus and glaber.
Gentianaceae. Swertia parryi has been transferred to the resurrected genus Frasera, and two of our species of Centaurium to the genus Zeltnera.
Gratiolaceae. Bacopa monnieri of our flora has been transferred from the Plantaginaceae to this family (Rahmanzadeh et al. 2005). This change was recognized by neither APG III nor Jepson II, nor to date by Jepson eFlora.
Krameriaceae. The well known desert species, Krameria grayi is now Krameria bicolor.
Lamiaceae. Hyptis emoryi is now Condea emoryi (Pastore et al. 2011), a change recognized in the updated Jepson eFlora. Salazaria mexicana is now Scutellaria mexicana. Satureja chandleri is now Clinopodium chandleri.
Linderniaceae. Lindernia dubia of our flora has been transferred from the Plantaginaceae to this family (Rahmanzadeh et al. 2005). This change was recognized by neither APG III nor Jepson II, nor to date by Jepson eFlora.
Malvaceae. Species of Lavatera have been transferred to the genus Malva.
Montiaceae. This family, now segregated from the Portulacaceae, includes the genera Calandrinia, Calyptridium, Cistanthe, Claytonia, Lewisia, and Montia. Calandrinia ambigua and Calandrinia maritima are now recognized as species of Cistanthe. Calindrinia ciliata is now recognized as C. menziesii, the former misapplied to our County plants (this change not yet recognized in Jepson II or the Jepson eFlora; see Hershkovitz 2006). Calyptridium arizonicum is segregated from C. parryi vars. (not recognized in Jepson II or the Jepson eFlora; see Simpson et al. 2010).
Myrsinaceae. The genus Anagallis has been transferred from the Primulaceae to this closely related family, and Centunculus minimus is now Anagallis minima.
Onagraceae. The genus Camissonia has been split into six genera (with retention of specific and infraspecific epithets): Camissonia, Camissoniopsis, Chylismia, Eremothera, Eulobus (containing only E. californicus in our County), and Tetrapteron. The former taxon Epilobium angustifolium subsp. circumvagum is now Chamerion a. subsp. circumvagum. Finally, all the species of Gaura have been transferred to the genus Oenothera.
Orobanchaceae. Boschniakia strobilacea is now Kopsiopsis strobilacea. Cordylanthus maritimus subsp. maritimus is now Chloropyron maritimum subsp. maritimum. Cordylanthus orcuttianus is now Dicranostegia orcuttiana.
Papaveraceae. Dicentra chrysantha is now Ehrendorferia chrysantha, and Stylomecon heterophylla is now Papaver heterophyllum.
Phrymaceae. Mimulus has been split into several segregate genera, based on molecular phylogenetic studies (Barker et al. 2012), a change not in Jepson II and not yet updated in the Jepson eFlora. In our County, all Mimulus species have been transferred to the genera Diplacus, Erythranthe, or the monotypic Mimetanthe.
Plantaginaceae. The genus Bacopa has been transferred to the family Gratiolaceae (Rahmanzadeh et al. 2005). Limosella acaulis has been transferred to the family Scrophulariaceae. Linaria canadensis is now Nuttallanthus texanus. Lindernia has been transferred to the family Linderniaceae (Rahmanzadeh et al. 2005). (Note that some treatments, e.g., FNA eFlora, split our species of the genus Antirrhinum into two genera, Sairocarpus and Neogaerrhinum; we list these as synonyms in the Checklist for now.)
Polygalaceae. Polygala cornuta var. fishiae is now Rhinotropis cornuta var. fishiae (Abbott 2011), a change not in Jepson II and not yet updated in the Jepson eFlora.
Polygonaceae. Polygonum convolvulus is now Fallopia convolvulus. Several species formerly in the genus Polygonum are transferred to Persicaria. Polygonum arenastrum is now P. aviculare subsp. depressum. Polygonum douglasii subsp. johnstonii is now P. sawatchense subsp. sawatchense. Rumex salicifolius var. denticulatus is now R. californicus.
Portulacaceae. This family now contains only species of the genus Portulaca in our flora.
Primulaceae. Dodecatheon taxa have been transferred to the genus Primula, a change not in Jepson II but recognized in the updated Jepson eFlora. Thus, in our County Dodecatheon clevelandii subsp. clevelandii is now Primula clevelandii subsp. clevelandii. As mentioned earlier, Centunculus taxa are now treated in the genus Anagallis, and the latter genus is now transferred to the family Myrsinaceae. The genus Samolus is transferred to the family Theophrastaceae.
Rhamnaceae. The common Ceanothus greggii var. perplexans is now C. perplexans. Ceanothus greggii var. vestitus is now C. pauciflorus [C. vestitus in Jepson II]; see Burge and Zhukovsky 2013. A presumed new, undescribed species of Ceanothus occurs in the Santa Margarita Mountains, of northwestern San Diego Co. What was called Ceanothus foliosus in our County has been resurrected to C. austro-montanus.
Rosaceae. The two varieties of Potentilla glandulosa have been transferred to Drymocallis glandulosa. Sanguisorba occidentalis has been changed to Poteridium annum and Sanguisorba minor subsp. muricata is now Poterium sanguisorba.
Salicaceae. Populus balsamifera subsp. trichocarpa is now Populus trichocarpa. Salix lucida subsp. lasiandra is now Salix lasiandra.
Sapindaceae. Acer has been transferred to this family.
Saxifragaceae. Saxifraga californica is now treated as Micranthes californica.
Scrophulariaceae. Limosella acaulis has been transferred from the Plantaginaceae to this family. We have added a number of Myoporum taxa not listed in Jepson II or the Jepson eFlora but that we feel are naturalized in San Diego County.
Solanaceae. A new, undescribed species of Physalis has been discovered in San Diego County. Our two, non-native species of Lycopersicon have been transferred to the genus Solanum (Peralta and Spooner 2000), a change not listed in Jepson II nor yet in the Jepson eFlora.
Theophrastaceae. Samolus is now transferred from the Primulaceae to this closely related family.
Viscaceae. Phoradendron serotinum and subspecies have been transferred to Phoradendron leucarpum, a change to be noted in the Jepson eFlora.
We have placed the monocots at the end of our Checklist to parallel Jepson II. Within the monocots, the following major nomenclatural changes are noted:
Agavaceae. This family now includes our two species of Chlorogalum (previously classified in the Hyacinthaceae).
Convallariaceae. This family is no longer recognized in APG III and is not recognized in Jepson II. In the latter and in our Checklist, the genus Maianthemum is now transferred to the Ruscaceae.
Hyacinthaceae. This family is no longer recognized in APG III and is not recognized in Jepson II. In the latter and in our Checklist, the genus Chlorogalum is now transferred to the Agavaceae.
Juncaginaceae. Lilaea scilloides has been transferred to the genus Triglochin.
Melanthiaceae. Species of Zigadenus have been transferred to the genus Toxicoscordion.
Nolinaceae. Nolina species are now treated in the family Ruscaceae.
Poaceae. As in Jepson II, the species of Achnatherum, Nassella, Oryzopsis, and Piptatherum have been transferred back to the genus Stipa, although an upcoming phylogenetic treatment may split this genus even more. We are elevating the two subspecies of Bromus madritensis to species status, based on research by Fortune et al. (2008). Elymus hispidus and E. ponticus have been transferred to the genus Thinopyrum (as T. intermedium and T. ponticum; see FNA 1993+). Festuca now includes species of the genera Lolium and Vulpia. Monanthochloe littoralis has been transferred to the genus Distichlis. Our two infraspecies of Leptochloa have been transferred to the genus Diplachne (Peterson et al. 2012). Species of the genera Leymus and Taeniatherum have been transferred to the genus Elymus. Our three species of Pennisetum have been transferred to Cenchrus (Chemisquy et al. 2010).
Potamogetonaceae. Ruppia maritima has been transferred to Ruppiaceae.
Ruppiaceae. This family, containing only Ruppia maritima in our County, is now recognized, segregated from the Potamogetonaceae.
Ruscaceae. This family is now treated with a broadened circumscription, containing Mainthemum and Nolina in San Diego County and in California.